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Sentence Patterns

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Sentence Patterns

Post by Admin on Mon Apr 10, 2017 11:38 pm

Sentence Patterns

Following are the five basic sentence patterns. If you are having problems constructing a
sentence, make sure that it follows one of these patterns. This information is from
Longman English Grammar by L.G. Alexander.

1. Subject + Verb
Note: These verbs are intransitive (do not take direct objects).

Examples:  My head aches.
                  He cried.

2. Subject + Verb + Complement

Note: The verbs are “linking” verbs (be, appear, become, look, seem,
sound, taste). Complements are nouns, pronouns and phrases
which complete the meanings of verbs.

Examples: Frank is clever.   (adjective)
                It’s mine.   (pronoun)
               The meeting is here.   (adverb of place or time)
               Alice is like her father.   (prepositional phrase)

3. Subject + Verb + Direct Object

Note: These verbs are transitive   (take direct objects).

Examples: We parked the car.   (noun)
                 We forgave her.   (pronoun)
                 I want to leave.   (infinitive)
                 I enjoy reading.   (gerund)

4. Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object

Note: The indirect object can be reversed with the direct object (see
examples). Some verbs require “to” in this construction (e.g. I
showed the photo to him.) and some verbs require “for” in this
construction (e.g. He brought a present for Jamie.).

Examples: I gave Mike the keys.   (I gave the keys to Mike.)
                He showed me the photos.   (He showed the photos to me.)

5. Subject + Verb + Object + Complement

Note: The complement is usually a noun, though after some verbs it can
be an adjective or a noun (e.g. They called him foolish/a fool.).

Examples: They appointed him chairman.    (noun complement)
                 They made Sam president.   (noun complement)
                      Loud music drives me crazy.   (adjective complement)


Basic Sentence Structure


There are five basic patterns around which most English sentences are built.*
They are as follows:
S-V       Subject-Verb             John  slept .
She  arrived .

S-V-O Subject-Verb-Object I like rice.
She loves her job.
He's eating an orange.
S-V-Adj Subject-Verb-Adjective He is funny.
The workers are lazy.
Karen seems angry.
S-V-Adv Subject-Verb-Adverb Jim is here.
Flowers are everywhere.
No one was there.
S-V-N Subject-Verb-Noun She is my mom.
The men are doctors.
Mr. Jones is the teacher.



At the heart of every English sentence is the Subject-Verb relationship. Other elements can
be added to make a sentence more interesting, but they are not essential to its formation.
The following sentences are examples of the S-V pattern.


Basic Sentence Structure


There are five basic patterns around which most English sentences are built.*
They are as follows:
S-V Subject-Verb                                                                               John  slept .
She  arrived .

S-V-O Subject-Verb-Object I like rice.
She loves her job.
He's eating an orange.
S-V-Adj Subject-Verb-Adjective He is funny.
The workers are lazy.
Karen seems angry.
S-V-Adv Subject-Verb-Adverb Jim is here.
Flowers are everywhere.
No one was there.
S-V-N Subject-Verb-Noun She is my mom.
The men are doctors.
Mr. Jones is the teacher.



At the heart of every English sentence is the Subject-Verb relationship. Other elements can
be added to make a sentence more interesting, but they are not essential to its formation.
The following sentences are examples of the S-V pattern.
She sleeps. Core sentence
She sleeps soundly. An adverb is added to describe how she sleeps.
She sleeps on the sofa. A prepositional phrase is added to tell where she sleeps.
She sleeps every afternoon. A time expression is added to tell when she sleeps.
She is sleeping right now. Verb tense is changed, but S-V relationship remains the same.
Mary will sleep later. Subject is named and another tense is used.
The dogs are sleeping in the garage. New subject may require a different form of the verb.
Note: Any action verb can be used with this sentence pattern.
The following sentences are examples of the S-V-O pattern.
They like rice. Core sentence
The people like rice. Specific subject
The friendly people like rice. Subject modified with an adjective
The people in the restaurant like rice. Subject modified with an adjective
The people like boiled rice. Object modified with an adjective
The people like hot, white rice. Object modified with more than one adjective
Note: Only transitive action verbs can be used with this sentence pattern.

The following sentences are examples of the S-V-Adj pattern.
He is fine. Basic sentence with "be" verb
He seems happy. Basic sentence with another linking verb
Jordan is tall, dark and handsome. Series of adjectives
He appears very comfortable. Adverb or intensifier added
George became sick last night. Different tense and linking verb
Note: Only linking verbs can be used with this sentence pattern.
The following sentences are examples of the S-V-Adv pattern.
The teacher is here. Basic sentence
The teacher is over there. Using an adverb phrase
Teachers are everywhere. Plural noun and verb used
The teachers are in the lobby. Prepositional phrase functioning as adverb
Note: Only linking verbs can be used with this sentence pattern.
The following sentences are examples of the S-V-N pattern.
The man is a doctor. Basic sentence
The women are doctors. Using plural noun and verb
My father is a nice guy. Modified subject and complement
My grandparents are senior citizens. Modified plural subject and complement
Note: Only linking verbs can be used with this sentence pattern.


CONJUNCTIONS
 Conjunctions are words used as joiners.
 Different kinds of conjunctions join different kinds of grammatical structures.
The following are the kinds of conjunctions:
     
 A. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
              for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
Coordinating conjunctions join equals to one another:
           words to words,          phrases to phrases,          clauses to clauses.

       
      Coordinating conjunctions usually form looser connections than other conjunctions do.

         Coordinating conjunctions go in between items joined, not at the beginning or end.




 B. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS
either. . .or both. . . and
neither. . . nor not only. . .  but also
       These pairs of conjunctions require equal (parallel) structures after each one.



C. SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
These words are commonly used as subordinating conjunctions
after in order (that) unless
although insofar as until
as in that when
as far as lest whenever
as soon as no matter how where
as if now that wherever
as though once whether
because provided (that) while
before since why
even if so that
even though supposing (that)
how than
If that
inasmuch as though
in case (that) till
Subordinating conjunctions also join two clauses together, but in doing so, they make one clause dependent (or "subordinate") upon the other.




A subordinating conjunction may appear at a sentence beginning or between two clauses in a sentence.  
A subordinate conjunction usually provides a tighter connection between clauses than a coordinating conjunctions does.
Loose: It is raining, so we have an umbrella.
Tight: Because it is raining, we have an umbrella.
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